20. Prague, Czech Republic
Prague has been a political, cultural, and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV (r. 1346–1378). It was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years’ War, and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era.